In the solid-state laser, light is typically utilized as the pump resource, and also the crystal or glass that can generate the laser is called the laser working product. Laser working material is also known as gain medium. The laser functioning product contains two parts: matrix as well as activated ions. Matrix material gives a suitable existence as well as working environment for triggered ions, and also triggered ions finish the laser generation procedure. The typically utilized turning on ions are mainly transitioning metal ions, such as chromium, diamond, as well as nickel plasma, and rare earth metal ions, such as neodymium ions. A mirror covered with a dielectric film is used as a resonator lens, one of which is an all-mirror, and also one is a semi-mirror. Various wavelengths of laser will certainly be released when using various activation ions, various substratum materials, and different wavelengths of light excitation.
YAG gain medium
YAG is short for Yttrium aluminium garnet, which is the existing laser crystal matrix with one of the most excellent comprehensive characteristics. After adding neodymium (Nd), it can result 1064nm light, and also the maximum continual result power can reach 1000w. Early use inert gas strobe as a laser pump source, however the strobe pump setting, broad spectral range, as well as laser gain tool absorption spectrum overlap is poor, and also the heat lots is large, causing a low photoelectric conversion rate. So currently, making use of the LD (laser diode) pump can achieve high effectiveness, high power, and lengthy life of the laser.
Nd: YAG crystals
Nd: YAG crystals can be used in lasers. The Nd: YAG laser can deal with hemangioma as well as inhibit tumour development. Nonetheless, the thermal damage of the tissue triggered by this laser is non-selective. While coagulating the blood vessels in the tumour, the excess energy will also damage the bordering normal cells, which is very easy to leave scars after surgical procedure. Consequently, Nd: YAG laser is more typically used in surgery, gynaecology, and ENT, yet less in dermatology.
Yb: YAG, Ytterbium (Yb) combined in YAG, can output 1030nm light. The Yb: YAG pump wavelength of 941 nm as well as result wavelength extremely near to pump quantum performance can accomplish 91.4%, with the heat generated by the pump suppressed to 10% or much less (most of the energy input right into the result of laser power, a few come to be warm, means that the conversion performance is extremely high), is an Nd: YAG 25% ~ 30%. Yb: YAG has actually become one of the most appealing solid-state laser media. LD pumped high power Yb: YAG solid-state laser has actually ended up being a brand-new research hotspot and also is a major instructions for creating effective and also high-power solid-state laser.
Other doped YAG crystal
In addition to the above two kinds, YAG can be integrated right into holmium (Ho), Erbium (Er), and so on. Ho: YAG can produce 2097nm and 2091nm lasers that are secure for human eyes as well as are mainly ideal for optical interaction, radar as well as clinical applications. Er: YAG outputs 2.9 μm light. The human body has a high absorption rate of this wavelength, which has fantastic application capacity in laser surgery as well as vascular surgical procedure.
Ruby gain medium
The ruby laser result laser wavelength is 694.3 nm, and the photoelectric conversion price is reduced, just 0.1%. Nevertheless, its lengthy fluorescence life contributes to power storage space and also can result high pulse peak power. The laser produced by a ruby rod with a pen lead’s density and the finger’s length can easily generate and also punch via the iron sheet. Prior to the more efficient YAG laser arrival, ruby lasers were commonly utilized for laser cutting as well as exploration. On top of that, the 694nm light is easily taken in by melanin, so ruby laser is also used to deal with pigmentary lesions (skin spots).
Titanium sapphire (Ti:Sapphire) gain medium
Because of its crystal properity, titanium sapphire laser has a wide tunable variety (tunable wavelength array). It can result light of 660nm-1200nm wavelength as required. Coupled with the maturation of frequency doubling technology (which can increase the frequency of light, i.e. halve the wavelength), the Ti: Sapphire wavelength range can be encompassed 330nm-600nm. Titanium sapphire laser has been used in femtosecond splitting, nonlinear optical research, white light generation, terahertz wave generation, etc, and also has actually also been applied in clinical appeal.